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Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 English Reading Unseen Passages for Comprehension
Gandhi used to go to the court neatly dressed. Every day, he needed a fresh, clean collar to match his shirt. He used his shirt for two days. His washing bill was heavy, and the washerman was often late in giving back his clothes. Gandhi wanted to cut down his expenses on washing. One day, he came home with all the things needed to do his own washing and starching. He also bought a book on washing and read it carefully. Gandhi taught his wife Kasturba the art of washing. The new hobby was an additional burden on Gandhi’s daily work, but he was not a man to give up. He was determined to cut down his expenses. He also wanted to be self-reliant. One day, he washed a collar and starched it. Since he was not used to ironing, he used an iron that was not hot enough, and he did not press hard enough. He was afraid of burning the collar.
He went to the court wearing the collar. It was overstarched and stood stiff. His friends laughed quietly at this sight. Gandhi was not disturbed and said, “Well, this is my first attempt at washing, hence this overdose of starch. But it does not matter. At least it provided you with so much fun!” “But are there no laundries here?” asked one. “No, the laundry bill is very heavy. It costs almost as much to wash a collar as to buy a new one, and even then I need the washerman always. I prefer, by far, to wash my things myself.” Later, he proved to be good at washing. Gandhi was always particular about his clothes. Even as a small boy, he kept his fine mill dhoti spotlessly white. He washed it with water from a well, and dried it in the sun, because the sun made clothes bright and killed germs.
- Why did Mahatma Gandhi start washing and ironing clothes with his own hands?
- What did his fellow lawyers do to see his collar ?
- How did Gandhiji react to his fellow lawyers’ funny remark?
- What did Gandhiji do himself as a boy?
- How did Gandhiji go to the court ?
- What did he need everyday ?
- What did Gandhiji prove later on ?
- With which thing did Gandhiji wash his dhoti?
- Write one word for ‘business of washing and clothes’.
- Select words from the passage which mean opposite to the following words :
(i) made wet, (ii) bad.
- Mahatma Gandhi started washing and ironing his clothes with his own hands, because the washing was costly and often the washer man became late.
- His fellow lawyers laughed to see Gandhiji wearing an overstarched and roughly ironed collar.
- Gandhiji plainly said that it was his first attempt at washing.
- As a boy Gandhiji washed his dhoti with water and soap and dried it in the sun.
- He went to the court neatly dressed.
- He needed a fresh, clean collar to match his shirt everyday.
- Later on he proved to be good at washing.
- Gandhiji washed his dhoti with water from a well.
- (i) dried, (ii)good
Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhry were good friends. So strong was their bond of friendship that when either of them went away from the village, the other looked after his family. Both were greatly respected in the village. Jumman had an old aunt who had some property. This she transferred to him on the understanding that she would stay with him and he would look after her. The arrangement worked well for a couple of years. Then the situation changed. Jumman and his family were tired of the old relative. Jumman became as indifferent to her as his wife, who grudged even the little food that the old lady wanted every day. She swallowed these insults along with her food for a few months. But patience has its limits.
One day she spoke to Jumman, “My son, it is now obvious that I am not wanted in your house. Kindly give me a monthly allowance so that I can set up a separate kitchen.” “My wife knows best how to run the house. Be patient,” said Jumman shamelessly. This made his aunt very angry and she decided to take her case to the village panchayat For many days, the old lady was seen talking to the villagers explaining her case and seeking their support. Some sympathised with her, others laughed at her and a few others advised her to make it up with her nephew and his wife. At last she came to Algu Chowdhry and spoke to him, “You know, Chachi, Jumman is my best friend. How can I go against him ?” Algu said. “But is it right, my son, to keep mum and not say what you consider just and fair ?” pleaded the old lady. “Come to the panchayat and speak the truth,” she said. Algu didn’t reply, but her words kept ringing in his ears.
- Who were Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhry?
- How can you say that Jumman Sheikh and Algu were fast friend?
- What had Jumman’s aunt have ?
- Why did Jumman’s aunt transfer her property to him?
- Who were tired of the old aunt ?
- How was the behaviour of Jumman’s wife with the old aunt?
- What did the old aunt speak to Jumman?
- Under what circumstances Jumman’s aunt took her complaint to the village panchayat ?
- Make plurals of the following words :
(i) property, (ii) wife
- Find out from the passage words similar in meaning to the following:
(i) to compromise, (ii) requested
- Jumman Sheikh and Algu Chowdhary were good friends who lived in the same village.
- They were so fast friends that when either of them went away from the village, the other looked after his family.
- Jumman’s aunt had some property.
- The old aunt transferred her property to Jumman on the understanding that she would stay with him and he would look after her.
- Jumman and his family were tired of the old aunt.
- Jumman’s wife began to ill treat her. She grudged the two meals a day.
- The old aunt spoke to Jumman to give her a monthly allowance to set up a seperate kitchen.
- As Jumman and his family ill treated and insulted the aunt so she took her complaint to the village panchayat.
- (i) properties, (ii) wives.
- (i) to make up with (ii) pleaded.
Vegetable oil has been known from antiquity. No household can get on without it, for it is used in cooking. Perfumes may be made from the oils of certain flowers. Soaps are made from vegetable and animal oils. To the ordinary man, one kind of oil may be as important as another. But when the politician or the engineer refers to oil, he almost always means mineral oil, the oil that drives tanks, aeroplanes and warships, motorcars etc. This is the oil that has changed the life of the common man. When it is refined into petrol, it is used to run engines. To it we owe the existence of the motorcar, which has replaced the private carriage drawn by horse. To it we owe the possibility of flying.
It has changed the method of warfare on land and sea. This kind of oil comes out of the earth. It is used as fuel, and in some ways it is superior to coal in this respect. Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal. Because it burns brightly, it is used for illumination. Because it is very slippery, it is used for lubrication. Two metal surface rubbing together cause friction and heat, but if they are separated by a thin film of oil, the friction and heat are reduced. No machine would work for long if it were not properly lubricated. The oil used for this purpose must be of the correct thickness. If it is too thin it will not give sufficient lubrication, and if it is too thick it will not reach all parts that must be lubricated.
- What are the main uses of vegetable oil?
- Which oil does the politician or the engineer refer to?’”
- What are driven by the mineral oils ?
- What has changed the life of the common man ?
- Which types of oils are used to make soaps?
- How petrol is used?
- Why do we use oil for lubrication ?
- Why should the lubricating oil be of correct thickness ?
- Find words from the passage which mean the following:
(i) from ancient time, (ii) lighting up
- Use the modal ‘may’ in your own sentence.
- The vegetable oil is used in cooking, in making perfumes and in making soaps.
- The politician or engineer refers to mineral oil.
- Tanks, aeroplanes, warships, motor cars, etc. are driven by mineral oil.
- Mineral oil has changed the life of the common man.
- Vegetable and animal oils are used to make soaps.
- Petrol is used in running cars, machines, generators and in flying aeroplanes.
- We use oil for librication as it oil reduces friction and it increases the life of the machine…
- Lubricating oil should be of correct thickness. If it is too thin, it will not give sufficient lubrication. If it is too thick it will not reach every part.
- (i) antiquity (ii) illumination
- May I come in, Sir ?
Punctuality is a necessary habit in all public affairs of a civilized society. Without it nothing could ever be brought to a conclusion, everything would be in a state of chaos. Only in a sparsely populated rural community is it possible to disregard it. In ordinary living, there can be some tolerance of unpunctuality. The intellectual, who is working on some difficult problem, has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand. He is, therefore, forgiven if late for the dinner party. But people are often reproached for unpunctuality when their only fault is cutting things fine. It is hard for energetic, quickminded people to waste time, so they are often tempted to finish a job before setting out, to keep an appointment.
If no accidents occur on the way, like punctured tyres, diversion of traffic, sudden descent of fog, they will be on time. They are often more industrious useful citizens than those who are never late. The overpunctual can as much be a trial to others as the unpunctual. The guest who arrives half an hour too soon is the greatest nuisance. Some friends of my family had this irritating habit. The only thing to do was to ask them to come half an hour later than the other guests. Then they arrived just when we wanted them. If you are catching a train, it is always better to be comfortably early than even a fraction of minute too late. Although being early may mean wasting a little time, this will be less than if you miss the train and have to wait an hour or so for the next one.
- Why is punctuality necessary in a civilized society?
- Who can disregard punctuality ?
- What sort of guests are forgiven for unpunctuality ?
- Who are reproached ?
- What is hard for energetic people ?
- In which situation a punctual man may not be punctual ?
- Who is the greatest nuisance ?
- Why is it better to wait on the platform
before the train arrives?
- Find words in the passage which convey the similar meaning to the following:
(i) thinly scattered, (ii) cultured
- Write adjective forms of the following words :
(i) punctuality, (ii) comfortably
- In a civilized society many people are involved in one matter. If one is late all the participants are disturbed and things to out of order.
- People living in a sparsely populated rural areas can disregard punctuality.
- The intellectual, who is working on some difficult problem, has everything coordinated and organized for the matter in hand. He may be forgiven for unpunctuality.
- People are reproached for unpunctuality.
- It is hard for energetic people to waste time.
- If some accidents occur on the way like puntured tyres, diversion of traffic, sudden descent of fog, a punctual person may not be punctual.
- The greatest nusaince is the guest who arrives half an hour too soon.
- It is better to wait for the train on the platform because if we arrive just on time we may miss train.
- (i) sparsely (ii) civilized
- (i) punctual (ii) comfortable
Now that the marnmoth is extinct, the elephant is the largest of all animals living, and the strongest. It is a strange-looking animal, with its thick legs, huge sides and back, large hanging ears, small tail, little eyes, long white tusks, and, above all, its long nose, called the trunk. The trunk is the elephant’s peculiar feature and it puts it to various uses. It draws up water by its trunk and can squirt it all over its body like a shower bath; and with it, it picks leaves from the trees and puts them into its mouth. In fact, its trunk serves the elephant as a long arm and hand. Elephants look very clumsy and heavy and they can move very quickly when they like. Elephants are found in India and in Africa. The African elephant differs in some points from the Indian, being larger, with longer tusks and bigger ears. In fact the two are considered to be different species.
In both countries, they live in herds in the jungles and are naturally shy animals that keep away from men. Elephants, with their great size and strength are fine advertisement for vegetarianism, for they live entirely on leaves of trees, grass, roots and bulbs. The elephant is a very intelligent animal, and its intelligence combined with its great strength, makes it, when tamed, a very useful servant to man; as it has been trained to serve in various ways. Elephants can carry heavy loads about a thousand seers each: and they are used to draw heavy wagons and big guns that would require many horses. They are very skilful, too, in piling timber. The trained elephant will kneel down, lift a heavy log of wood with its tusks, carry it to the place where it is wanted and lay it exactly in position.
- Why is the elephant ‘a strange looking animal’?
- What is the elephant’s trunk ?
- What are the functions an elephant can do with its trunk?
- In which thing are elephants skinful ?
- Name the countries where elephants are found.
- How is the African elephant differ from the Indian elephant ?
- Why do elephants keep away from human beings?
- How can an elephant be regarded as a good advertisement for vegetarianism ?
- Bring out the meaning of the following words by making separate sentences from them :
(i) herd, (ii) extinct
- Find words from the passage which are opposite to the following words :
(i) down, (ii) same
- Elephant is a strange looking animal due to its legs, huge sides and backs, fan-like ears, white sharp tusks, small eyes and a long trunk.
- The elephant’s trunk in fact is its nose.
- With it, it can suck up water and pour out water like a shower, it can pick up leaves and sugercane and put them into its mouth.
- Elephants are very skilful in piling timber.
- Elephants are found in India and Africa.
- The African elephant differs in some points from the Indian elephant, being larger, with longer tasks and bigger ears.
- Elephants are shy by nature so they keep away from human beings.
- An elephant is a living example that a vegetarian can be as powerful, intelligent and strong as an elephant.
- (i) Elephants like sheep live in a herd, (ii) Servants are now almost extinct in modern society.
- (i) up, (ii) different.
Ras Bihari Bose was one of the greatest freedom fighters from Bengal. He was a clerk in the Forest Research Department, Dehradun. He joined the forefront of the Indian Freedom Movement in 1911. He was prepared to take any risk for the freedom of the motherland. To him India’s independence was essential because it was necessary for the regeneration of the whole world. He was responsible for the introduction of the revolutionay movement from Bengal to Northern India. He was a strong supporter of open revolt against the British. He was charged in India with a case of conspiracy. A reward was declared for his arrest. He, therefore, left India and reached Singapore, from where he headed to Tokyo to mobilise support for the Indian freedom struggle.
He delivered a fiery speech in Tokyo against Britain. The Japanese government passed an Extradition order which later on became ineffective as he could not be traced. Later on, he came out of concealment. He got married to Toshiko, a Japanese citizen. In Japan he founded the Indian Independence League. He arranged for the safe passage of Subhash Chandra Bose to Singapore with the help of the Japanese government. Due to his declining health, he handed over all responsibility of his organization to Subhash Chandra Bose. He died in 1945 but his strong devotion and love for the motherland has made him an immortal figure in the history of the Indian freedom struggle.
- Who was Ras Bihari Bose?
- Where was Ras Bihari Bose posted ?
- What was he prepared for ?
- Why did he leave India ?
- What important work did he do for the revolutionary movement of India ?
- Why did the Japanese goverment pass an Extradition order?
- What help did he provide to Subash Chandra Bose ?
- Why was India’s independence essential ?
- Locate the words in the passage that mean the following:
(i) necessary, (ii) established.
- Form the comparative degrees of the following words :
(i) greatest, (ii) strong
- He was one of the greatest freedom fighters from Bengal.
- Ras Bihari Bose was posted as a clerk in the Forest Research Department, Dehradun.
- He was prepared for taking any risk for the freedom of the motherland.
- He left India because he was charged in India with a case of conspiracy and a reward was declared for his arrest.
- He introduced the revolutionary movement from Bengal to Northern India.
- The Japanese government passed an Extradition order because he had delivered a fiery speech in Tokyo against Britain.
- He made arrangement for the safe passage of Subhash Chandra Bose to Singapore with the help of the Japanese government.
- India’s independence was essential because it was necessary for the regeneration of the whole world.
- (i) essential (ii) founded
- (i) greater, (ii) stronger
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel started his movement in Bardoli in 1928. This movement earned Patel the title of Sardar or Leader. Gandhiji had planned to make Bardoli the centre of his non-cooperation movement in its first phase, but after Chauri- Chaura incident he dropped this idea. Bardoli soon became the target of the British Government’s displeasure. So, revenue was raised by 22%. Cultivators were compelled to protest but the Government remained unmoved. The delegations, therefore, met Vallabhbhai who studied the situation carefully and then spoke to Gandhiji. He told him that it was necessary to fight against the authorities for the cause of the farmers.
Gandhiji gave his nod and Vallabhbhai in his own way, persuading the people to sacrifice everything, organized a farmers’ movement. It was a non-cooperation movement, fully non-violent and disciplined. The Government cracked down on the agitators but they fearlessly continued their struggle under the leadership of Vallabhbhai. All sorts of cruelties were inflicted upon them but the farmers remained united. Their morale remained on a high too. At last, the government had to draw up a compromise and meet all the demands of the farmers of the Bardoli Taluka. The agitation under the leadership of Vallabhbhai Patel was a grand success and had great impact on all future noncooperation movements throughout the country. It brought great name and fame to Vallabhbhai. His dynamic leadership earned him the title of Sardar or true leader from Gandhiji.
- When did Patel earn the title of Sardar?
- What had Gandhiji planned for Bardoli?
- When did Gandhiji drop the idea of the first phase of his movement ?
- How did the government show displeasure?
- Why did the delegations meet Vallabhbhai?
- What did Patel say to Gandhiji?
- How did Patel persuade the people to do?
- Of what kind was the movement started by Patel ?
- Locate the words in the passage that mean the following:
(i) forced, (ii) protesters
- Make the singular forms of the following words:
(i) authorities, (ii) cruelties
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel started his movement in Bardoli in 1928. This movement • earned Patel the title of Sardar or leader.
- Gandhiji had planned to make Bardoli the centre of his non-cooperation movement in its first phase.
- After Chauri-Chaura incident, Gandhiji dropped the idea of the first phase of his movement.
- The Government showed displeasure by raising revenue by 22% at Bardoli Taluka.
- The delegations met Vallabhbhai to help them in the movement against the Government.
- He told Gandhiji that it was necessary to fight against the authorities for the cause of the farmers.
- Patel persuaded the people to sacrifice everything in their struggle of the cause.
- It was a non-cooperation movement, fully non-violent and disciplined.
- (i) compelled, (ii) agitators
- (i) authority, (ii) cruelty
In India working women lead a life of dual responsibilities if they are married and have a family. In the West many women are committed to their jobs. Here in India women still have traditional roles to fulfil and prefer a career to avoid domestic hard and boring work. There are four categories of working women in India. Some work while they are waiting for matrimony. A majority work because they are qualified, want a second income and a different kind of life for part of the day. A small section consists of career-women. A sizeable section of women are bread-winners. It is quite apparent that with a majority of working women the family is more important than the job.
They prefer to stay in joint farnilies where their children can be taken care of while they are at work. When they come back in the evenings from the relatively modern surroundings of their work-spots; their personalities have to undergo a change to accommodate the demands on their time and attention by different family members whose predominant feelings are of having been neglected. These women often do their shoppings on the way from office. They reserve their week-ends for heavy housework which will help them to cope with the rest of the week with relatively less tension. Weekends are also reserved for spending time with their spouses and children, for entertainments and family duties. Actually speaking they hardly have time for personal needs. Despite the freedom and confidence of their jobs and pay packets, working women still prefer to leave the financial decision-making and budgeting to their husbands.
- Who lead a life of dual responsibilities?
- What do the women do in the West?
- What do the Indian women prefer?
- How many categories are there in India of working women ?
- Why do majority of women work in India ?
- What do the working women in India prefer?
- When do the working women do their shoppings?
- For what do the working women in India reserve their weekends ?
- Make noun forms of the following words:
(i) traditional, (ii) prefer
- Make superlative degrees of the following words :
(i) different, (ii) small
- In India working women lead a life of dual responsibilities.
- They are committed to their jobs.
- Indian women prefer a career to avoid domestic hard and boring work.
- Four categories.
- Majority of women work in India because they are qualified and want a second income.
- They prefer to leave the financial decision making and budgeting to their husbands.
- They do their shoppings on the way from office.
- They reserve their weekends for spending time with their spouses and children, for entertainments and family duties.
- (i) tradition, (ii) preference
- (i) most different, (ii) smallest
Narendra Damodardas Modi was born on 17 September 1950 at Vadnagar in Mehsana District of Gujarat. He is the first Prime Minister of India who was born just after the independence of India. Narendra Modi was sworn in as Prime Minister on 26 May 2014 at the Rastrapati Bhavan. His swearing-in ceremony was a first of its kind. He invited all SAARC leaders to attend the ceremony. The leaders who attended the ceremony were Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif, Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa, Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai, Bhutan Prime Minister Tshering Tobgay, Nepal Prime Minister Sushil Koirala, Maldives President Abdulla Yameen, Speaker of Bangladesh Shirin Sharmin Chaudhary and Prime Minister Navin Ramgoolam of Mauritius (SAARC observer). He was the third of the four children.
His father, Damodardas Mulchand Modi used to run a tea stall at Vadnagar railway station. Narendra Modi used to help his father in selling tea. The name of his mother is Heeraben. At the age of eight he joined RSS (Rastriya Swayam Sevak Sangh). He left home at the age of 17. He became RSS Pracharak. He returned home after two years. He postgraduated in Political Science from Gujarat University in 1983. On 7th October 2001 Modi was appointed the Chief Minister of Gujarat. Modi served as the Chief Minister of Gujarat for the four terms (2001-2002, 2002-2007, 20072012, 2012-2014). As for Modi, he is a vegetarian. He has a frugal lifestyle. He writes poems but in Gujarati. As a speaker he is known as a crowd-puller. He is the most net-savvy political leader of India.
- When and where was Narendra Modi born?
- When and where was Narendra Modi sworn in as Prime Minister ?
- Why was his swearing-in ceremony a first of its kind ?
- How did he help his father?
- What is his qualification ?
- When did he join RSS ?
- Who came to join swearing-in ceremony from Pakistan ?
- What is the quality of Narendra Modi as a speaker ?
- Choose from the passage the words that mean
(i) using only as much money as is necessary, (ii) type
- Make Noun forms of the following words:
(i) attend, (ii) invite
- Narendra Modi was born on 17 September, 1950 at Vadanagar in Mehsana district of Gujarat.
- He was sworm in as Prime Minister on 26 May, 2014 at the Rastrapati Bhawan.
- His swearing-in ceremony was a first of its kind because he invited all SAARC leaders to attend the ceremony.
- He helped his father in selling tea.
- He is post graduate in Political Science.
- When he was eight years old, he joined RSS.
- Prime Minister Nawaj Shariff came to attend swearing-in ceremony from Pakistan.
- As a speaker he is known as a crowd puller.
- (i) frugal, (ii) kind
- (i) attendance, (ii) invitation
We want.purity-pure food, pure water, pure air. We want pure surroundings. We yearn for pure heart and pure love. We prefer pure environment and pure society. We are fond of purity because purity promotes health. Impurities are injurious to health. Purity gives peace of mind. Impurities destroys the mind. Both for physical health and mental health, we need purity. We require environmental purity for overall health. Purity of body is physical health. Purity of speech is pure truth. Purity of heart is unselfish love. Purity of thought is righteous reason. Purity of mind is wholesome peace. Purity of action is sincere and unselfish service. Purity of society is harmonious unity. In the Mahabharata, there is an interesting episode to illustrate the nature of purity. The Pandavas and the Kauravas were Drona’s disciples. They were once called by their teacher Drona for a test.
The eldest of the Pandavas, Yudhishthira, was asked to bring one bad person from the society. The eldest of the Kauravas, Duryodhana was asked to bring one good person from the same society in Hasthinapura. After a search, both the cousins returned empty handed. The pure minded Yudhishthira found everyone to be pious and pure. The impure mind of Duryodhana found everyone to be evil and impure. As is the mind, so is the vision. Purity of mind makes our vision, words and deeds pure. It has also the power to purify people. Evil has no place in the presence of purity. Nor can it (evil) face purity, as darkness cannot face the sun. It only gets changed into purity. Villains who come to harm stand in adoration in the presence of purity. Murderers become followers of peace in the presence of purity.
- What do we want ?
- What do we yearn for?
- Why are we fond of purity ?
- Why do we require environmental purity?
- What are purity of mind and purity of action ?
- What are the various types of purity ?
- Why could Yudhishthira not find a bad person?
- What effect does purity of mind have on people ?
- Write one word for ‘to want something very much especially when it is very difficult to get
- Choose the words from the passage that mean :
(i) desire for, (ii) gives
- We want purity-pure food, pure water, pure air.
- We yearn for pure heart and pure love.
- We are fond of purity because it promotes health.
- We require environmental purity for overall health.
- Purity of mind is wholesome peace and purity of action is sincere and unselfish service.
- There are various types of purity; as purity of body, purity of speech, purity of heart, purity of thought, purity of mind, purity of action, etc.
- Yudhishthira couldn’t find a bad person because he found everyone to be pious and pure.
- Purity of mind makes our vision, words, and deeds pure. It has also the power to purify people.
- (i) long for, (ii) provides
Rajasthan is India’s largest state, located on its north-western border with Pakistan. It is surrounded by the states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and the Punjab. Rajasthan is divided in two parts by the Aravalli hills, dividing it into two different landscapes. On the west is Rajasthan’s unique feature, the Thar Desert-an area of sand, scrub and thorn. The other is the region to the east of the Aravallis, which is more rain fed and friendly and kind to visitors. The culture of Rajasthan is defined by the Rajputana kingdoms that ruled it for centuries; the word Rajput meaning sons of royalty. The Thar Desert region saw the Desert Kingdoms of Marwar; modern Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner. The east saw the kingdoms of Mewar modern Chittor and Udaipur; modern Amber and Jaipur and Hadoti-modern Bundi, Kota and Jhalawar among many others. As a result, Rajasthan has a larger number of forts, palaces, and royal riches than any other place in India. This is the reason why tourism here is a primary pillar of the economy; apart from agriculture and cattle rearing.
The capital Jaipur, with its many great buildings made of rosy sandstone, is called Pink City. The old parts of town offer shopping such as jewellery, hand-dyed clothes, precious stones and craftwork. Udaipur has many lakes, lakeside palaces, and the largest palace complex (City Palace) in Rajasthan. Jaisalmer fort is made of yellow sandstone such that it’s called the Golden Fort. The Shekhawati region in the north east offers painted havelis belonging to old business families. Ranthambore and Şariska National Parks are for tiger reserves while Keoladeo Ghana National Park (Bharatpur) is a bird-rich wetland, where over 375 species of migratory birds visit every year. Brahma Temple is the main attraction of Pushkar.
- What is the main attraction of Pushkar ?
- Where are the painted havelis found ?
- How many species of migratory birds visit Ghana every year?
- What does Udaipur offer?
- What does the word ‘Rajput’ mean?
- Name the states which surround Rajasthan.
- Write the unique feature of Rajasthan’s west.
- Which is a primary pillar of economy in Rajasthan?
- Make singular form of the following words:
(i) families, (ii) fortresses
- Write one word for A period of one hundred years.
- Brahma Temple is the main attraction of Pushkar.
- The painted havelis are found in Shekhawati.
- Over 375 species of migratory birds visit Ghana every year.
- Udaipur offers many lakes, lakeside palaces and City Palace (largest palace complex).
- The word ‘Rajput’ means son of royalty.
- The states which surround Rajasthan are Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and the Punjab.
- The unique feature of Rajasthan’s west is . its “Thar Desert-an area of sand, scrub and thorn.
- Tourism is a primary pillar of economy in Rajasthan.
- (i) family, (ii) fortress
Srinivasa Ramanujan was one of the greatest mathematical genius of the world. Born in a poor Brahmin family, he gave no sign of his hidden talent. He was born at Erode in Coimbatore in 1887. His father was an accountant to a cloth merchant who had to maintain a large family on a small income. Srinivasa was granted half exemption of fees when he stood first in the Primary School Examination in the whole of Tanjore District. From his childhood Ramanujan was of a quiet and dreamy temperament. He had answer to all sums that puzzled his class-mates and seniors. Figures did not worry him, no calculation was too difficult for him. Things which were all dark and muddled to his classmates were as clear as daylight to him. He always helped them with generosity which all
through his career was the most lovable feature of his character. When he was in second class his curiosity upon the subject of the “Highest Truth” in Mathematics was roused. Later on, when he moved into the Third Standard, he asked for problems of Mathematics of higher nature. While in Fourth Standard, he could solve the most difficult problems of Trigonometry. He obtained Euler’s Theorems and proved them. He followed Carr’s Synopsis of Pure Mathematics. He solved all the problems without any other book to aid him. To him each solution was a triumph which encouraged him to a fresh endeavour. Ramanujan won Subramanyam Scholarship usually awarded for proficiency in English as well as Mathematics. But the passion for Mathematics gained on him, he neglected all other subjects so much that he failed to gain promotion to higher class, thereby losing his scholarship. This was a great calamity of which he had never dreamt. He had no money, no means of earning, no books, no influence. No help came to him from outside. He was now eighteen without any. definite plan.
- Who was Ramanujan ?
- Where was Ramanujan born ?
- What was his father?
- How did Ramanujan show his talent in Third Standard ?
- “Things which were all dark and muddled to his classmates were as clear as daylight to him,” How ?
- Why did he fail to get promotion to higher class?
- What was the unexpected calamity that befell Ramanujan ?
- How was Ramanujan superior to his seniors ?
- Choose from the passage the words that mean :
(i) inspire, (ii) ignore
- Make noun forms of the following words :
(i) dreamt, (ii) maintain
- He was one of the greatest mathematical genius of the world.
- Ramanujan was born at Erode in Coimbatore.
- His father was an accountant to a cloth merchant.
- By asking for problems of Mathematics of higher nature, Ramanujan showed his talent in Third Standard.
- It was so because he was a genius in solving figures and calculations.
- Ramanujan paid more attention to Mathematics and ignored other subjects, so he failed to get promotion to higher class.
- Failing to get promotion and thereby losing his scholarship was the unexpected calamity that befell Ramanujan.
- Ramanujan could solve any kind of problems in Mathematics. He was superior in Mathematics to his seniors.
- (i) encourage, (ii) neglect
- (i) dream, (ii) maintenance
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